‘A’ brackets or ‘P’
– some competition yachts and powercraft fitted with spade rudders,
do not have a conveniently placed skeg for mounting the outboard gland
of a sterntube in which case an ‘A’ or ‘P’ bracket
has to be fitted.
– behind or near the stern of the vessel
– the portion of the vessel at half its length
– for general use there are considered to be two categories
of anchor - the main or ‘bower’ anchor and the auxiliary or
‘kedge’ anchor. As the name suggests the ‘bower’
anchor is the anchor used on the bow, is heavier and attached to much
more cable. A kedge anchor is a smaller, general purpose anchor used for
short term anchoring, for assistance having run aground and as an additional
anchor in adverse weather. Usually the kedge is fitted with a warp rather
than chain so that it is easier to handle in a dinghy for ‘kedging
off’ or laying out a second anchor at a mooring. (Types - Fisherman's,
Grapnel, Danforth, Delta, Bruce, CQR/Plough). Cable - for effective mooring
the anchor relies to a good degree on its chain and if a warp has to be
used at least 5 metres of chain should be used between the anchor and
the warp.. It is preferable to carry sufficient chain for the for the
operational cruising area of the vessel - or 4x length of boat or a min.
of 30 metres. End of chain should be lashed or seized to strong point
in chain locker (not shackled!)
– device for measuring the strength and direction of the wind
(usually at the masthead although there are some hand held devices.
Anode (sacrificial anode/ sacrificial plate)
– a solid block of zinc or magnesium fastened to the outside
of the hull below the waterline to reduce the electrolytic corrosion of
– ropes which support the mast against the forward thrust of
the sails. They stretch from the masthead back to either side of the vessel
or to the channels.
– any solid or liquid weight placed in a ship to increase the
draught, to change the trim or to regulate the stability.
– a thin flexible length of wood or hard plastic used for fairing
and drawing curved lines. Or used in batten pockets to smooth the shape
of a sail.
– one of a number of thick strong timbers stretching across
the vessel from side to side, supporting deck and sides and firmly connected
to the frames by strong knees. They are generally higher at the middle
than the sides to assist water to flow off the decks more easily. The
longest beam is the midship beam which is mounted across the widest frame
– heavy right angled timber connecting a beam to the vessels
– mastic used under fittings to prevent leaks.
– a) the area of the hull between the lower part of the side
and the outer part of the bottom. b) The space below the cabin sole or
engine room plates used as a drainage space.
– threaded cylinder (the bottle) led into the outer end of a
shroud or stay for setting up or tightening standing rigging.
– the forward part of the vessel’s side from a point where
the planks curve inward to where they meet at the vessel’s stem.
– a spar used to extend the foot of a sail or any spar heeled
out from the vessel’s side.
– vertical sub-division wall within a vessel. May be transverse
or longitudinal, watertight or non-watertight bulkheads of no particular
structural importance but used simply to sub-divide cabin areas are called
– protective structure built around the edge of the upper or
weather deck to prevent the crew from falling overboard.
– a fore and aft vertical section of the boat found on the sheer
plan of a lines drawing.
– compartment used as living quarters on a ship.
– compartment in the bows of a vessel where the anchor cable is
stowed and its inboard end is secured.
– the transverse downward curvature of the upper or weather
– generic for any material covering (sails, awnings, screens
etc...)used on a vessel and derived from an era when commercial sails
were made from different weights of canvas which is a coarse fabric made
– vessels built with the planking running fore and aft but built
edge to edge not overlapping (as in clinker built boats).
– the internal planking of a vessel.
– metal fittings secured to the sides of a vessel from which
the shrouds are set up.
– a longitudinal hard corner forming the bilge of fast motor
vessels or barge type hulls - double chine - soft chine (curved rather
than hard edge).
Chopped strand mat
– glass fibre re-reinforcing sheet consisting of fibres randomly
arranged, not woven.
– automatic cut-out system to protect a circuit from overloading
in place of a fuse.
– a fitting with two horns around which a rope can be tied.
– construction method where planks overlap (lapstrake in America).
– the deck or roof covering a cabin that is raised above the
deck level to increase the headroom below.
– raised sides of a cockpit or hatch
– originally the compartment under the lower gundeck in a man’o
war where the wounded were attended to by the surgeon during battle. These
days it refers to the open area in a small vessel from which it is controlled.
– The International Regulations for preventing Collision at
Sea. There have been rules covering the navigation of ships at sea for
well over 200 years. The first official regulations. were introduced in
1840. Current regulations introduced in 1972 with amendments in 1983.
The application of the rules is covered by rule 1. – “the
rules apply to all vessels on the high seas and in all waters connected
therewith navigable by seagoing vessels” therefore COLREGS. apply
to all vessels including yachts and small craft. The REGULATIONS cover
Visibility of lights, lights for power driven vessels, towing and pushing,
sailing vessels, fishing vessels, vessels not under command or restricted
in their ability to manoeuvre, vessels constrained by their draught, anchored
vessels and vessels aground, equipment for sound signals.
– construction method where the hull is laminated from several
layers of veneers fastened to a jig.
– arched section curving upwards and aft from the wing transom
and buttock to the bottom of the stern above.
– framework (frequently welded metal) which supports a vessel
while she is being built or laid up out of the water.
– outboard bearing for the prop. shaft is either bronze or a
cutlass rubber insert which has a grooved hard rubber bearing bonded to
a brass sleeve which is clamped in the outboard gland and requires water
for lubrication not grease. Drawback is that it is longer than the normal
bronze fitting to provide the equivalent bearing effect and there is often
not enough room to fit one.
– horizontal flat or curved surface forming a working area for the
hull. The upper deck is usually weather tight and cambered, lower decks
will usually be watertight.
– loss of zinc from a copper zinc alloy such as brass, due to immersion
in salt water - results in a weak and porous copper residue.
– a raised protective covering abaft the the cabin in a small boat,
for the steering position and all round visibility
– round wooden plug used to hide fastening and laid with the grain.
– place in the middle of a vessel’s stern where her name and
port of registry are inscribed.
– curved cast or wooden open topped piece secured to the edge of
a deck through which mooring lines are run to give them a ‘fair
lead’. When cast with a top to form a ring they are called Panama
– Strips of wood fitted to the edges of tables and other flat surfaces
to prevent objects sliding off.
– in the forward part of the vessel towards the stem.
– part of a vessel’s accommodation second in importance to
– distance from the waterline to the upper surface of the freeboard
– area used for food preparation below decks.
– single broken strand(s) in a stainless steel wire rope. These
are dangerous as they can cut through a glove and flesh easily. Time to
change the wire. Check for gashers using a soft cloth carefully!
– a specially formulated resin mix applied to the mould before the
lay-up of the first layer of reinforcement. this coating duplicates the
mould surface, forms the outer cosmetic surface and provides protection
against weathering. It is an unreinforced pigmented polyester resin. It
is not a coating but rather part of the moulding.
– double concentric metal suspension fitting in which a compass
bowl, cooker etc... can be retained in the horizontal position by counteracting
the motion of the boat.
– a dangerous fault whereby standing or running rigging does not
have a direct line of tension through a shackle or bottle screw thereby
putting an uneven load on the shackle and the eye that it is secured to.
– glass reinforced plastic (/FRP)
– a thicker timber than the ordinary side planking fitted at and
forming the lower edge of the gun ports in a warship - these days it describes
the upper edge of the bulwarks.
– rope or tackle used to hoist or lower a sail, yard or gaff.
– rectangular opening in the deck providing access.
– the front or fore part of a vessel including the bows on each
– timber supporting the gratings on the fore part of the vessel.
– the vessel’s lavatory (formerly a grating over the bow or
– a vessel is heeled when inclined by an external force.
– specifically the tiller; the lever controlling the rudder. Used
in a wider sense to describe the steering gear.
– opening in the stern of a vessel housing the rudder stock and
allowing it entry into the hull for connection to the helm.
Helm port transom
– timber reinforcement of the helm port.
– the body of a vessel excluding mast, sails and rigging.
– frame shaped in such a way that each attached strake slopes outward
giving the appearance of being clinker built although the planks do not
– a temporary rudder rigged if the true rudder has been smashed
or carried away.
Jury steering gear
– a temporary steering gear rigged if the vessel’s proper
steering gear is inoperable.
– the main longitudinal structural timber or plate forming the backbone
upon which the vessel is constructed.
– Internal keel mounted over the floor timbers and immediately above
the main keel, providing additional structural strength.
– Iron or copper staple fastening the false keel to the keel.
– a small compartment for stores.
– making a curved shape by gluing thin strips of timber against
a jig. Each strip is called a laminate
Length overall (LOA)
– maximum length of a vessel.
– comprehensive construction guidelines drawn up by Lloyd’s.
– a flanged pintle preventing the rudder from being accidentally
– any for and aft member.
– vertical or raked spar stepped on a vessel’s keel and carrying
sails, yards, rigging and other gear. A mast can be made of one or more
pieces of timber or of tubular steel or alloy. High masts can consist
of several masts one above the other.
– the point midway between the forward and aft perpendiculars.
– weight of water contained in timber expressed as % of dry weight.
Moisture readings can be particularly relevant when diagnosing osmotic
reactions or delamination.
– made as one part. Modern laminate hulls are monocoque structures.
– 1) the height or depth of a member measured normally to the centre
line or hull planking
– 2) a fibreglass hull as it is removed from the mould and before
any further work is started.
1X19 Stainless Steel
The majority of modern yachts have 1x19 stainless steel standing rigging.
This is made up of 19 individual wires which are extruded and given a
spiral twist so that each wire lies snuggle in place in a standard pattern.This
consists of a central wire surrounded by 6 and an outer ring of 12 wires.
This rigging is simple, reliable and should have a working life of 10
years cruising (5 years racing) before it needs to be replaced.
– the male pattern from which a female mould is made prior to producing
the finished article from another material. e.g. Fibreglass hulls are
laid up in fibreglass moulds which are themselves created from a wooden
plug./ metal ballast keels are cast in sand moulds made by ramming the
sand around a wooden plug.
– the resin normally used for producing fibreglass hulls.
– a revolving, screw-like device used to propel a vessel through
– the side of a vessel between midships and the stern.
– a general term for ropes and wires of a vessel including those
that support the mast and yards (standing rigging) and those used for
working the sails (running rigging).
– for and aft member fastened inside the timbers to support thwarts,
soles and other transverse members.
– vertically aligned controllable plane surface at the after end
of the vessel to enable her to be steered in any desired direction. types
- spade; balanced;semi-balanced; barn door; single or double plate etc...
materials - wood; steel; alloy.; FRP (hollow hydrofoil).
Rudder brace (/band)
– horizontal metal bracket on the fore edge of a rudder holding
either the pintle or gudgeon.
– upper part of the rudder stock.
– housing in the stern which houses the rudder head.
– housing above the helm port through which the rudder stock passes
into the vessel.
– vessel’s stern post when the rudder is hung on it.
– stout vertical beam to which the blade of the rudder is fixed.
– wood or metal projections on the rudder or stern post which stops
the rudder from turning more than 40o to either side.
– housing for the rudder stock running from the helm port to the
deck where the rudder quadrant or tiller is mounted.
– a shaped expanse of fabric used to exploit the force of the wind
to drive the vessel. Square sails hang from timber spars (yards) across
the line of the keel; fore and aft sails are set on gaffs or stays along
the line of the keel.
– stowage for the vessel’s sails.
– vessel’s main accommodation.
– join two pieces of wood by thinning the ends and making them overlap
without increasing the thickness of the joint or requiring a butt strap.
– to take up the slack in standing rigging.
– rope or wire rigging supporting a mast laterally running from
masthead to side of vessel.
– outside plates or timbers of a vessel.
– a framework over accommodation or engine containing a clear glass
panel allowing light/air to the space below.
– upper end of stem post.
– strong timber forming the foremost part of the vessel’s
frame rising from the keel.
– the rear end of a vessel.
– fine cracking of the gelcoat caused either by impact, load stress
from fittings or hard spots. This is a condition that should be carefully
repaired to avoid water ingress and where possible alleviated to avoid
– vertical casing forming three sides of a square around a mast
within which a mast is stepped and clamped. In smaller vessels the cheeks
of the tabernacle extend above the deck allowing the mast to be pivoted
on a pin.
Thames tonnage = [L – B] x B x 0.5B
Where L is the Thames tonnage length from fore side of stem to aft side
of stern post (or fore side of rudder post), and B is the beam to the
outside of the planking or plating. All dimensions are in feet.
– a fault in timber that runs across the grain commonly found in
mahogany and usually caused during felling. Renders the length of timber
useless because, although difficult to see, the timber will fall apart
– non structural, transverse plank forming a seat in a small boat
– water tight without leaks.
– wood or iron bar fitted into the head of the rudder for the purpose
of steering the vessel.
– length of wood fastened around the edge of the deck to prevent
the loss of small items overboard.
– a rail (usually a hand rail) on the counter of a vessel (the stern
– an inward curve of the topsides found in some vessel designs.
– section through the hull parallel to the surface of the water
when afloat. ‘Load waterline’ is the section at the waterline
at which she is designed to float.
– any deck which is not protected from the weather.
– machinery used for raising the anchor and chain cable.